Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. It forms a stable dihydrate, but aqueous solutions tend to undergo hydrolysis, particularly if hot. SnCl2 is widely used as a reducing agent (in acid solution), and in electrolytic baths for tin-plating. Tin(II) chloride should not be confused with the other chloride of tin; tin(IV) chloride or stannic chloride (SnCl4).
SN-38 is an antineoplastic drug. It is the active metabolite of irinotecan (an analog of camptothecin - a topoisomerase I inhibitor) but has 1000 times more activity than irinotecan itself. In vitro cytotoxicity assays show that the potency of SN-38 relative to irinotecan varies from 2- to 2000-fold.SN38 is formed via hydrolysis of irinotecan by carboxylesterases and metabolized via glucuronidation by UGT1A1.
The variant of UGT1A1 in ~10% of Caucasians which leads to poor metabolism of SN-38 predicts irinotecan toxicity, as it is then less easily excreted from the body in its SN-38 glucuronide form.SN-38 and its glucuronide are lost into the bile and intestines. It can cause the symptoms of diarrhoea and myelosuppression experienced by ~25% of the patients administered irinotecan.